Marketing Mix

What Are The 4Ps Of Marketing

When developing a marketing strategy for your business, it is important to keep in mind the 4Ps. These are:

4Ps of MarketingProduct: a combination of physical product and service provided to target customers
Price: the amount of money customers must pay to obtain the product or service
Place: activities for getting the product or service available to target customers
Promotion: modes of communication of product or service information to customers

And a good way to understand the 4 Ps is by the questions that you need to ask to define your marketing mix. Here are some questions that will help you understand and define each of the four elements:


• What does the customer want from the product/service? What needs does it satisfy?
• What features does it have to meet these needs?
• Are there any features you’ve missed out on?
• Are you including costly features that the customer won’t actually use?
• How and where will the customer use it?
• What does it look like? How will customers experience it?
• What size(s), color (s), and so on, should it be?
• What is it to be called?
• How is it branded?
• How is it differentiated versus your competitors?
• What is the most it can cost to provide, and still be sold sufficiently profitably? (See also Price, below).


• What is the value of the product or service to the buyer?
• Are there established price points for products or services in this area?
• Is the customer price sensitive? Will a small decrease in price gain you extra market share? Or will a small increase be indiscernible, and so gain you extra profit margin?
• What discounts should be offered to trade customers, or to other specific segments of your market?
• How will your price compare with your competitors?


• Where do buyers look for your product or service?
• If they look in a store, what kind? A specialist boutique or in a supermarket, or both? Or online? Or direct, via a catalog?
• How can you access the right distribution channels?
• Do you need to use a sales force? Or attend trade fairs? Or make online submissions? Or send samples to catalog companies?
• What do your competitors do, and how can you learn from that and/or differentiate?


• Where and when can you get across your marketing messages to your target market?
• Will you reach your audience by advertising in the press, or on TV, or radio, or on billboards? By using direct marketing mailshot? Through PR? On the Internet? Social Media?
• When is the best time to promote? Is there seasonality in the market? Are there any wider environmental issues that suggest or dictate the timing of your market launch, or the timing of subsequent promotions?
• How do your competitors do their promotions? And how does that influence your choice of promotional activity?

The 4Ps model is just one of many marketing mix lists that have been developed over the years. And, whilst the questions listed above are key, they are just a subset of the detailed probing that may be required to optimize your marketing mix which should include a mix of offline and online activity.

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